After logging in to the Android App, tap the three horizontal bars, top left.
Choose Settings, then choose Security.
Here you can change the timeout settings, and you can also specify re-prompt settings.
"Skip Item reprompt after log in" - This is what re-prompts you for your password. Longer is better for you.
I believe this will address your issue.
When I go to Security on my Samsung Android phone, I have none of those options you show when I select Security from the three bars on the top left. Only 4 choices, Generate a strong new pwd button, a Emergency Access button, a Security Challenge button and Security Dashboard button.